When should you visit your family doctor?

You can consult a family doctor for various issues – if you feel symptoms of a cold, flu, or fever, if you want to get a certificate of incapacity for work, or buy prescription drugs. You must also consult a family doctor to see any other specialist in another field. The family doctor performs health checks for school, work, driver’s license and issues certificates. Consult a family doctor after the birth of a child and don’t forget to visit a prophylactic once a year to check your health.

When do you (not) have to pay for the doctor's services?

The Nefrida clinic provides the following personal health care services free of charge (they are paid for by the TLK):

  • Necessary (urgent) medical assistance (for all residents of the Republic of Lithuania, regardless of whether they are covered by compulsory health insurance or not. Also for citizens of EU countries, upon presentation of a valid E-form certificate confirming coverage by health insurance).
  • Primary ambulatory personal health care services, provided in a health care facility or at the patient’s home, to patients covered by compulsory health insurance and who have concluded a contract for the provision of primary personal health care services with UAB “Nefridos” clinic.
  • Secondary ambulatory personal health care services – consultations by medical specialists, for patients covered by compulsory health insurance and having referrals from family doctors, pediatricians or medical specialists.

Paid personal health care services are provided at the Nefrida clinic when:

  • Persons without citizenship and citizens of foreign countries who do not have health insurance and a permanent residence permit in Lithuania apply in case of non-urgent assistance.
  • Patients, on their own initiative, without the recommendation of the attending physician, choose more expensive medical measures, procedures or tests than are used in the Republic of Lithuania according to established treatment methodologies and exceed the maximum funding allocated by the administration of “Nefrida” clinic for medical measures, procedures or tests, if these tests and procedures do not harm specific person’s health.
  • Patients, who do not have a referral from a primary care doctor or specialist, apply to the “Nefridas” clinic on their own initiative.
  • After the clinic has exhausted the funds limit stipulated in the contract with the Territorial Hospital Fund, announcing in a visible place that temporarily, due to lack of funds, it is not possible to provide certain planned treatment and laboratory and diagnostic services if the patient wishes to receive the service in an urgent manner.
  • For newly registered patients (who have concluded a contract for the provision of primary level personal health care services with UAB “Nefridos” clinic) who wish to see a family doctor or pediatrician on the day of registration.

How to prepare for examinations?

Ultrasound examinations:

  • Abdominal echoscopy – do not use products that cause flatulence on the eve of the examination, and do not eat or drink liquids 4-5 hours before the examination;
  • Abdominal aorta pathology examination – about 8 hours before. Before the test, you need to take anti-bloating medicine. 12 o’clock do not eat before the examination, as the stomach must be empty during the examination;
  • Echoscopy of kidneys, ureters, bladder – drink liquids and do not urinate before the test;
  • Prostate ultrasound – we recommend drinking liquids and not urinating;
  • Gynecological ultrasound – we also recommend drinking fluids and not urinating.

Blood test:

  • Do not eat for at least 8-12 hours before blood sampling (it is important to remember that juice, tea, coffee, especially with sugar, are also food, you can only drink water);
  • Do not exercise, rest for 10-15 minutes before blood sampling;
  • Do not smoke for 1 hour before the test;
  • Do not drink alcohol 1-2 days before the test;
  • Do not take medication (if possible);
  • Avoid stress before the procedure, sit quietly and relax for at least 10-15 minutes before taking blood;
  • Do not perform x-ray contrast tests, massage, reflexotherapy or physiotherapy procedures, or surgical interventions before the blood test.

When repeating blood tests and in order to obtain the most accurate results, it is advised to perform them at the same time of day and in the same laboratory.

Urine tests:

Urine (morning) is collected in a wide-necked plastic disposable container. Before collecting urine, you need:

  • Wash your hands with soap and water;
  • Wash the external genitals with water, without using any disinfectants;
  • Drain the external genitalia;
  • Allow the first portion of urine to drain into the toilet;
  • Collect about 50-100 ml of the middle portion of urine;
  • Wipe the outside of the jar dry and screw the lid on;
  • Write your name, surname, time of sample collection on the container.

It is not recommended for women to perform a urine test during menstruation, but 2-3 days after it. It is necessary to deliver the urine sample to the laboratory for examination within 2 hours.

Stool tests:

Feces are collected in a clean, dry plastic container with a screw-on lid. Feces (5-15 g), without impurities of urine, are taken from several places. Name and surname are written on the container.

Clinical material samples from the genitals for sexually transmitted infections:

  • Do not urinate for at least 2-3 hours;
  • Do not use intravaginal preparations for at least 48 hours;
  • Do not wash the vagina for at least 24 hours;
  • For women, come on days 18-21 of the menstrual cycle (if the disease is not acute) or on days when there is no bleeding (if the disease is acute).


What is the danger of increased cholesterol in the blood?

It depends on whether there is more good or bad cholesterol in the blood. If there is more of the bad, there is a risk of developing atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, and blood circulation may be impaired in the long run. If the level of bad cholesterol in the blood is too high, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of fatty products and fats of animal origin.

How is it recommended to reduce high blood cholesterol?

Cholesterol is reduced by fiber-containing products, probiotics, omega-3 vitamins, fish, vitamin C, garlic, and medications. The best method is chosen by a cardiologist.

How to control high blood pressure?

Normal arterial blood pressure (BP) is 120 mm Hg and 80 mm, the normal limits are 140/90 mm Hm 90/60 to 90/60 mm. Only a cardiologist can tell you the best way to control it, so consult a specialist first, because he will decide what kind of treatment you need. Unfortunately, high and uncontrolled blood pressure eventually leads to various cardiovascular diseases.

What are the signs of a heart rhythm disorder?

First of all, this is indicated by an irregular, changed heart rhythm. Then the patient feels weak, cannot tolerate physical exertion, and gets short of breath. Short-term heart rhythm disturbances caused by stress and emotions go away on their own.

When to take a child to a cardiologist?

If you notice that your child is tired more often than usual, complains of pain in the chest area, dizziness, lack of air, has difficulty tolerating physical exertion and does not gain weight – we recommend that you make an appointment with a cardiologist to find out the causes of these ailments.

How to prepare a child for a visit to a cardiologist?

Simply explain to the child that you need to visit the doctor, who will check how the heart is working. It will be a completely painless procedure, there is no need to be afraid of it.

What tests are performed in the cardiologist's office?

To identify various diseases, laboratory tests and echocardiography are usually performed. For older children, a physical exercise test called veloergometry is performed.

I am pregnant and have diabetes. Is it dangerous?

An increased level of glucose in the mother’s body also enters the bloodstream of the fetus. Pregnant women with diabetes are more likely to have a caesarean section during delivery, and the risk of developing diabetes after delivery increases. However, under the care of specialists, a woman can give birth to a completely healthy child and avoid further complications.

Why does a disturbed thyroid resemble the symptoms of digestive tract, nervous system, heart, and gynecological diseases?

When the activity of the thyroid gland is activated, the symptoms that are characteristic of other diseases also appear. The patient becomes more sensitive, mood changes often, hand tremors are bothersome, heart palpitations appear, sweating more, weight changes. An endocrinologist can accurately assess these symptoms and prescribe treatment.

What are thyroid nodules?

Nodules in the thyroid gland can form quite often, in most cases they are harmless. However, if you notice them, it is worth visiting an endocrinologist.

What foods are good for maintaining good thyroid function?

Sea cabbage is very useful for the thyroid gland, as it contains important substances: iodine, trace elements, vitamins A, B, D and B.

Is a urologist a doctor for women or men?

A urologist is a universal specialist who treats both men and women. For men, a urologist diagnoses bladder and urinary tract problems, the prostate, solves problems of hormonal imbalance and infertility, and problems of sex life.

What procedures does a urologist treat women with?

In women, a urologist usually treats kidney stones, inflammation in the urinary tract, sexually transmitted infections, malignant or benign tumors of the urinary tract, excessive urination or urinary incontinence.

What is a pediatric urologist?

A pediatric urologist helps when children have urinary problems – problems with the bladder or ureters. A pediatric urologist also deals with genital development problems, advises on hernias, benign and malignant changes, and conducts research.

Is testing for sexually transmitted diseases painful?

The test is painless. In most cases, it is enough to urinate in a urine collection container to be tested for sexually transmitted diseases. Urine is tested for the presence of any sexually transmitted disease DNA.

When to see a urologist?

Consult a urologist if you notice that you are urinating more often than usual, feel pain in the pelvic area, feel a burning or stinging sensation or notice other symptoms in the genital area. Also, if you feel pain during sexual intercourse, there are erectile dysfunctions or suspicions of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

Can changes in the eyes indicate other diseases?

Recurrent eye inflammations can signal autoimmune diseases, yet undiagnosed infections. When observing certain changes in the eyes (for example, blood clots), we recommend conducting tests for diabetes and hypertension.

What are the symptoms of eye diseases and vision problems?

Most often it is a deterioration of vision, a decrease in brightness, repeated signs of eye inflammation, soreness of the eyes that is not related to their fatigue, dryness of the eyes without the help of moisturizing eye drops. If symptoms persist, we recommend making an appointment with an ophthalmologist.

When to see an eye doctor immediately?

If you have caught your eye or a foreign body has entered it, you must immediately consult a doctor, because in ophthalmology, these disorders are recorded as major eye injuries. If left untreated, vision may deteriorate. In the first few hours after experiencing the injury, there is the greatest chance of restoring quality vision.

How to preserve healthy eyes?

You should take regular breaks from computer and phone screens (at least every 20 minutes), use moisturizing eye drops when they become dry or when the climate conditions change. If your vision worsens, check whether you need glasses.

How often should you have your eyes checked?

We advise adults to have their eyes checked every 1-2 years. The eyes should be checked for the first time when the child is one year old, the second time – when the child is 3-4 years old, and the third time – before school.

When should you visit an otolaryngologist?

If you have a prolonged runny nose, sore throat or ears, hoarseness and these symptoms do not go away within 7-10 days.

How to recognize chronic sinusitis?

Chronic sinusitis manifests itself with the following symptoms: long-term stuffy nose, difficulty in breathing through the nose, severe weakening or complete disappearance of the sense of smell, headache in the forehead and cheekbones. Symptoms persist for more than 12 weeks.

What does a prolonged sore throat indicate?

Most often, a persistent sore throat can be a sign of several things: gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), which occurs when stomach acids irritate the lining of the throat, or irregular breathing that dries out the mouth.

My ear hurts. What causes pain?

Ear pain signals the onset of inflammation. It is not difficult to treat uncomplicated acute otitis media – it is enough to take painkillers, and the painful ear can be warmed with salt or semolina compresses. If the pain worsens and does not go away, consult a doctor.

When do you need a psychologist and when a psychiatrist?

A psychologist is a non-medically trained specialist who advises on various topics and examines the patient’s inner experiences, while a psychiatrist is a doctor who can diagnose mental illnesses, prescribe treatment, and prescribe medication.

How does a psychiatric consultation differ from a simple conversation with a loved one?

During the psychiatrist’s consultation, the doctor together with the patient tries to reach a common decision – to find out whether psychotherapeutic treatment is needed.

What are the symptoms of mental disorders?

These can be various behavioral disorders, when it becomes more difficult to work, communicate, engage in hobbies, suffer from insomnia, bad mood, loss of appetite, feeling of fear and anxiety inside, the quality of life deteriorates.

How to recognize depression?

The symptoms of depression are different for each person. You are usually in a bad mood, the activities you used to enjoy seem pointless and do not bring pleasure, drastic changes in weight, insomnia or excessive sleepiness (sometimes sleeping all day long), constant lack of energy and motivation, an excessive flow of bad, self-deprecating and reproachful thoughts is tiring, very often have suicidal thoughts, make a suicide plan, or attempt suicide. If you feel at least five of the mentioned signs, contact a specialist immediately.

When should you see a nephrologist?

In the presence of altered urine, in renal failure, with frequent recurrence of the urinary tract infections, decreased kidney function, or formations found in them.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease?

In mild renal failure, the patient does not experience any symptoms. In the case of advanced chronic kidney failure, there is a lack of appetite, digestive disorders (nausea, nausea, vomiting), attention deficit disorder, swelling of the legs, anemia.

How does acute kidney failure develop?

Acute kidney failure occurs suddenly and progresses very quickly. The disease develops due to impaired blood circulation in the kidneys, sudden loss of fluids, burns, severe food poisoning, and the use of drugs that damage the kidneys.

Is chronic renal failure a complication?

It can be said that yes, chronic kidney failure develops as a result of any other kidney disease.

When is a neurologist consultation recommended?

When experiencing chronic and severe headache, dizziness, numbness, impaired coordination and orientation, memory problems, loss of muscle strength in a specific area, impaired sense of smell, taste.

What are the signs of a stroke?

A stroke is usually difficult to predict because everyone has different symptoms. For some, speech is impaired, facial symmetry changes, one side of the body weakens, and for others, dizziness, swallowing becomes difficult, and coordination suddenly deteriorates.

What should I do if I see someone else having a stroke?

If you notice a sudden disturbance in speech, balance, coordination, signs of paralysis, call an ambulance immediately. If this is your relative, before going to the hospital, take copies of previous illnesses, examinations, and medications taken.

How to relieve a headache if medicine does not help?

It is very important to understand what factors provoke headaches. Take enough time to rest, drink plenty of water, maintain a healthy and balanced diet, spend more time in the fresh air, exercise regularly, and get quality sleep.

I am a minor. When is the first visit to the gynecologist?

The first visit should take place at the age of 18, if there are no problems. If the girl comes to the gynecologist earlier, it is necessary to be accompanied by parents or guardians.

What questions to ask the gynecologist during the visit?

During the visit, women can ask any questions related to complaints or general sexual health. There are no embarrassing questions, so you can ask absolutely anything you want.

When is a cervical smear (PAP smear) performed?

This examination is carried out when a girl turns 25 years old and is repeated every 3 years. The test is aimed at detecting precancerous changes and cervical cancer.

When should you see a traumatologist?

If you have suffered an injury to your hands or feet, which is very painful, you suffer from joint pain, swelling for no reason, difficulty moving, troublesome foot problems (twisted toes, deformed nails), develop flat feet.

I have recently started active sports and easily injured myself. Why?

Unfortunately, people who start exercising irregularly or suddenly, who have never played any sport before, have a higher chance of getting injured because they do the exercises incorrectly or do not warm up before the sport.

Why does the shoulder hurt?

Shoulder pain can be caused by injuries – fractures, dislocations, sprains, tendon injuries, or by inflammatory processes and chronic degenerative diseases (such as joint arthrosis, tightness syndrome, etc.).

How to treat a sprained ankle?

Ankle sprains, ligament tears, small fractures and small dislocations, when the ankle bone moves slightly out of place, are treated with casts, plastic splints. These injuries usually heal completely within 3-6 weeks.

Do all radiological examinations involve radiation?

Many of them do, but the amount of ionizing radiation (otherwise known as exposure) in them is minimal and permissible, otherwise these studies would not be conducted at all. There is no exposure to ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging studies.

Is X-ray safe?

X-rays use very little radiation, similar to what we get from cosmic radiation, building materials, food, etc., so the test is safe and simple, and has been used in medicine for many years for diagnostic purposes.

Ar radiologinius tyrimus saugu atlikti nėščioms moterims?

Radiological examinations are not recommended for pregnant women, and if there is a great necessity, they are performed extremely rarely, only in special situations.

Is ultrasound only performed on pregnant women?

No, the test can be performed to examine the condition of abdominal, pelvic organs, thyroid, breast, cardiovascular, soft tissue diseases. This test is often performed on people who have experienced trauma or who complain of acute, persistent abdominal pain.

What should be known before radiological examinations?

No special preparation is required. During these examinations, the patient is undressed halfway, and the patient must stand in front of the X-ray machine and hold his breath for a few moments while the doctor takes the pictures.

Is an ultrasound of internal organs a complicated procedure?

It’s a simple procedure. You will only feel a special sensory device through the skin of your body, which will be used by the doctor during the procedure. Immediately before the procedure, the skin is applied with a cooling gel.

When is ultrasound of internal organs necessary?

To examine the soft tissues, abdominal area, genitals, bladder, blood vessels, breasts.

How to prepare for this procedure?

In the morning, do not eat or drink anything, do not urinate, do not smoke, come to the procedure in loose clothes.

When is it recommended to visit an angiosurgeon?

It is a good idea to see a doctor if you experience heaviness, fatigue and swelling in your legs, frequent cramps, enlarged leg veins, temperature changes in one or both legs, and imbalance.

When is a neck vascular examination performed?

If you often suffer from headaches, dizziness, flickering in the eyes, short-term blindness occurs. The test is also recommended for those with high blood pressure or high cholesterol, and those with diabetes.

Are vascular surgery invasive procedures?

Gydant paprastesnes problemas, jei veninė kraujotaka sveika, operacijos nereikia – tuomet išsiplėtusius kapiliarus galima šalinti lazeriu. Sudėtingesniais atvejais operacijos gali būti atliekamos.

Are varicose veins on the legs an aesthetic problem?

No, it is a disease called varicose veins. It is more common in women. During the treatment, the aim is to direct the blood to flow through other, healthy veins, and completely damaged veins must be removed.

When are rehabilitation procedures necessary?

Rehabilitation is most beneficial for patients who have suffered major injuries after accidents or other disasters. Rehabilitation procedures help the body to recover faster after diseases and operations, and improve the state of health. Complex measures are used for treatment – physiotherapy, kinesitherapy, massages.

I am constantly in pain. Could physiotherapy help?

Rehabilitation classes can help solve various body pains, strengthen muscles, and ensure a faster healing process.

How long does rehabilitation take?

It depends on the patient’s condition, the type of injury or illness.

Why shouldn't rehabilitative exercise be underestimated?

Individual exercises are the basis for adjusting muscle balance and overcoming muscle pain. Exercise increases muscle elasticity, strengthens the ligaments around the joint, has a positive effect on the emotional state, and normalizes the nervous system.

Why is it important to have regular health checks?

A preventive health check-up allows the doctor to assess how your body and organs function, assess whether the blood is in good condition, detect various diseases or disorders, and prevent their progression.

How often should preventive health checks be done?

We recommend visiting your family doctor at least once a year.

Is the prevention of chronic diseases (respiratory, cardiovascular) effective?

Yes, effective. Chronic diseases can be prevented by a healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, full of vitamins and minerals, fresh air, frequent ventilation of rooms, physical activity and, of course, preventive visits to the doctor and adherence to prescribed treatment.

Is cancer prevention successful?

The earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the more likely it is to be successfully treated. Pre-neoplastic changes in organs usually do not cause any symptoms, so it is important to check your health in time.

When is the best time to give blood?

We advise you to take blood tests in the morning – from 8 to 11 am. It is important to wake up completely before the examination, give yourself at least 1 hour. to do so.

Can I eat and drink before blood tests?

8-12 hours before blood tests are recommended. (depends on the nature of the research) not to eat and do not drink unless your doctor allows it – this is a general principle that applies to all patients.

Can you exercise, smoke, brush your teeth before blood tests?

Sports and smoking are not allowed, as this can distort the results of the tests. You can brush your teeth.

When to apply to the medical board?

If you want to receive a certificate of incapacity for work, health certificate, pregnancy and maternity leave certificates, health check for work.

How often must the occupational health be checked?

A preventive health check-up for work is usually carried out every 2 years.

How long is an employee's medical card valid for?

In the medical card, the doctor and the workplace fill in the entries. It is stored for 15 years from the last visit to the doctor.